It further explores some of the most common techniques which have emerged for classification and analysis of the spectral data for biomedical applications. The importance of sample presentation and measurement conditions to yield the highest quality spectra in the first place is emphasised, as is the potential of model simulated datasets to validate both pre- and post-processing protocols.
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Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering | Tanum nettbokhandel
Further developments aimed at optimizing the fabrication protocol of microfluidic chip, were proposed testing new devices on BaF 2 substrates modified with a 10—20 nm silicon layer [ 45 ]. Although BaF 2 had an excellent IR transparency in a wider spectral window compared to CaF 2 , it was too soluble in water to perform experiments in physiological environment. Currently, calcium fluoride is the most widely proposed substrate for the realization of microfluidic devices because it is an IR-transparent material with water solubility low enough for performing measurements in aqueous solutions.
An innovative approach to examine living cells was offered by Ebrahimifard et al. He presented an infrared absorption method based on deuterium oxide D 2 O as cell medium, in order to eliminate the high infrared absorption of H 2 O in the spectral range, where the symmetric and asymmetric stretching vibrations of CH 2 and CH 3 groups of lipids take place. The designed IR sensor system was composed by a silicon nitride infrared light source, a monochromator, an InAs photodiode, an optical fibre and CaF 2 lenses Fig.
Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging
The application of the microfluidic concept to IR transparent materials offers new potential for FTIR on living cells. The implementation of both IR and visible transparent 3D microfluidic devices allow the real time observation of the biochemical rearrangements undergone in living cells upon chemical and mechanical stimulations, limited only by the low throughput of IR microscopes operating at high spatial resolution, with apertures of few micrometers.
The introduction of synchrotron light sources has provided an effective tool to overcome such limitations and to perform FTIR microspectroscopy on single cells and subcellular compartments in vivo , studying both structure and reactivity. Several studies demonstrated the usefulness of the high brilliance of the synchrotron radiation to examine single living cells at diffraction-limited spatial resolution and to identify the vibrational properties of biological components in single cells and in isolated cell nuclei [ 1 , 55 , 66 ].
Following the approach previously applied by several research groups [ 3 , 51 , 54 ] Liepic et al. In particular, by treating U monocytes with a synthetic peptide that promotes the monocyte extravasation for reaching the inflammation site, the synthesis of new adhesion proteins and the cell cytoskeleton rearrangement responsible for cell extravasation were observed.
The response of U to mechanical deformation was also evaluated confining them in fluidic devices with different thickness, in order to achieve different conditions of deformation. Spectral analysis demonstrated that deeply deformed cells have a different cellular biochemistry compared to not deformed ones.
Cells represent the fundamental biological unit from which the life of all living organisms depends. Knowledge of their morphology and above all their biochemical processes is extremely important in order to counteract the onset of cell anomalies or pathological conditions.
Each cellular component shows a peculiar position in a cell IR absorption spectrum. The capability to extract specific informations from each spectrum is essential for drawing useful conclusions on the process of interest. In this review, we have demonstrated that FTIR microspectroscopy is a valuable tool for studying single living cells and how this approach has evolved over time in order to get more and more reliable informations without isolating cells from their natural environment or subjecting them to conditions of stress.
The development of IR microspectroscopy has allowed discovering the complexity of some cellular processes and we could start to wonder if these studies of biochemistry in action could open up new perspectives in cellular biochemistry. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. Butler, K. Dorling, P. Fielden, S. Fogarty, N. Fullwood, K. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P.
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