Pacific Fleet, helped honor the late Donald Green and presided over the ceremony.
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In an article by Kitsap Navy News published May 15, , Green said he and his twin brother joined the Navy on their 18th birthdays to better themselves. On his last visit to Pearl Harbor, on Dec. He described a scene of chaos and destruction. He explained that he had recently completed his duties as the petty officer of the watch from midnight to 4 a.
He thought the sound was from the Army practicing bomb runs, but soon found out the real horror when the bomb blasts started feeling all too real. In another news clipping that Green had saved, it said that the overall effort by Green and the other crew members in warding off the attack by the Japanese played an important but little known part of the overall defense of Pearl Harbor and, in particular, the ammunition depot at West Loch.
Green said in the Kitsap Navy News article that his memories of fighting at Pearl Harbor were bittersweet. The Pyro later steamed out of Pearl Harbor and three days later was attacked by a Japanese submarine. Three torpedoes were fired at his ship but missed due to the ship following a zigzag pattern. After 20 years of service, Green retired and continued working as a pipefitter foreman at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.
He said there were several reunions of former Pyro Sailors over the years. His effort fell flat, stymied by a more militant generation and the dominant issue of the times, the Vietnam War. Rustin said, "It has split the civil rights movement down the middle. It has caused many white people who were in it to say, 'That must wait now until we stop Vietnam. Naegle, Rustin's surviving partner, says that in the final years of his life, Rustin became more involved in gay rights.
Or, as Rustin put it: "The barometer for judging the character of people in regards to human rights is now those who consider themselves gay, homosexual, lesbian. The judgment as to whether you can trust the future, the social advancement, depending on people, will be judged on where they come out on that question.
Carter says there was just no one like him, and she is delighted such a key individual in the civil rights movement is now being recognized with the nation's highest honor.
Rustin died in in New York. He was Ella Baker civil rights organizer, was born in Norfolk, Virginia, the daughter of Blake Baker, a waiter on the ferry between Norfolk and Washington, D. In rural North Carolina where Ella Baker grew up she experienced a strong sense of black community. Her grandfather, who had been a slave, acquired the land in Littleton on which he had slaved. He raised fruit, vegetables, cows, and cattle, which he shared with the community.
He also served as the local Baptist minister. Baker's mother took care of the sick and needy. She had dreamed of doing graduate work in sociology at the University of Chicago, but it was , and times were hard. Few jobs were open to black women except teaching, which Baker refused to do because "this was the thing that everybody figures you could do" Cantarow and O'Malley, p.
To survive, Baker waitressed and worked in a factory. During she was an editorial staff member of the American West Indian News and in became an editorial assistant for George Schuyler 's Negro National News , for which she also worked as office manager. In she was on the board of directors of Harlem's Own Cooperative and worked with the Dunbar Housewives' League on tenant and consumer rights.
In she helped organize and in became the national executive director of the Young Negroes' Cooperative League, a consumer cooperative.
Baker also taught consumer education for the Works Progress Administration in the s and, according to a letter written in , divided her time between consumer education and working at the public library at th Street. She married Thomas J. Roberts in or ; they had no children. Beginning in Baker worked with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP , and from to she traveled throughout the country but especially in the South for the NAACP, first as field secretary and then as director of branches to recruit members, raise money, and organize local campaigns.
She became "something of a legend for her prowess in organizing youth chapters in the South" Branch, p. Among the issues in which she was involved were the antilynching campaign, the equal-pay-for-black-teachers movement, and job training for black workers. Baker's strength was the ability to evoke in people a feeling of common need and the belief that people together can change the conditions under which they live. Her philosophy of organizing was "you start where the people are" and "strong people don't need strong leaders.
She resigned from her leadership role in the national NAACP in because she felt it was too bureaucratic. She also had agreed to take responsibility for raising her niece. Baker agreed to go for six weeks and stayed for two and a half years.
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She was named acting director of the SCLC and set about organizing the crusade to open simultaneously in twenty-one cities. She was concerned, however, that the SCLC board of preachers did not sufficiently support voter registration. Baker had increasing difficulty working with Martin Luther King, Jr. Because she thought that she would never be appointed executive director, Baker persuaded her friend the Reverend John L.
Tilley to assume the post in April, and she became associate director. After King fired Tilley in January , he asked Baker once again to be executive director, but his board insisted that her position must be in an acting capacity. Baker, however, functioned as executive director and signed her name accordingly.
Baker's speech "More Than a Hamburger," which followed King's and James Lawson's speeches, urged the students to broaden their social vision of discrimination to include more than integrating lunch counters. Julian Bond described the speech as "an eye opener" and probably the best of the three. To support herself she worked as a human relations consultant for the Young Women's Christian Association in Atlanta. Baker continued as the "ever-present mentor" Garrow, p. At a rancorous SNCC meeting at Highlander Folk School in Tennessee in August , Baker mediated between one faction advocating political action through voter registration and another faction advocating nonviolent direct action.
She suggested that voter registration would necessitate confrontation that would involve them in direct action. Baker believed that voting was necessary but did not believe that the franchise would cure all problems. She also understood the appeal of nonviolence as a tactic, but she did not believe in it personally: "I have not seen anything in the nonviolent technique that can dissuade me from challenging somebody who wants to step on my neck.
If necessary, if they hit me, I might hit them back" Cantarow and O'Malley, p. Thousands of people registered to vote in beauty parlors and barber shops, churches, or wherever a registration booth could be set up. Baker set up the Washington, D. During that time she organized a civil liberties conference in Washington, D.
Pearl Harbor Survivor Remembered
In her later years in New York City she served on the board of the Puerto Rican Solidarity Committee, founded and was president of the Fund for Education and Legal Defense, which raised money primarily for scholarships for civil rights activists to return to college, and was vice chair of the Mass Party Organizing Committee. Until her death in New York City she continued to inspire, nurture, scold, and advise the many young people who had worked with her during her career of political activism.
Ella Baker's ideas and careful organizing helped to shape the civil rights movement from the s through the s. She had the ability to listen to people and to inspire them to organize around issues that would empower their lives.
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At a time when there were no women in leadership in the SCLC, Baker served as its executive director. Hundreds of young people became politically active because of her respect and concern for them. Fannie Lou Hamer Fannie Lou Hamer was a civil rights activist whose passionate depiction of her own suffering in a racist society helped focus attention on the plight of African-Americans throughout the South. Born into slavery, Taylor taught herself to read and when she escaped to St. Born to an enslaved black mother and her master, Brown escaped slavery in and became a well-known anti-slavery speaker, activist and writer.
Mark Dean As a child, Mark Dean excelled in math. In elementary school, he took advanced level math courses and, in high school, Dean even built his own computer, radio, and amplifier. Dean continued his interests and went on to obtain a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from the University of Tennessee, a masters degree in electrical engineering from Florida Atlantic University and a Ph. He is one of the most prominent black inventors in the field of computers. The famous African-American inventor never thought the work he was doing would end up being so useful to the world, but he has helped IBM make instrumental changes in areas ranging from the research and application of systems technology circuits to operating environments.
One of his most recent computer inventions occurred while leading the team that produced the 1-Gigahertz chip, which contains one million transistors and has nearly limitless potential.
List of United States Navy ships present at Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941