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Overeating can result from learned behaviors. Baumeister et al found that individuals can get into a pattern of continuing to do a particular thing over and over. An example of this is an individual commences having a piece of cake every day at morning tea. The motivation is that is became part of a habit or ritual that is repeated every day and there is no thought process on whether the individual is hungry for the cake or not.

The individual consumes the cake without responding to physiological hunger and satiety cues.

It becomes a learnt behavior. In order to curb this motivation for overeating the individual needs to break the habit and this could be done through introducing a different habit which did not involve the consumption of food. When eating out socially we tend to let our guard down due to a lack of awareness and conformity.

Knowing this we can change our eating habits because we know that we are going to eat a little more and eat less than we normally would before and after eating socially to cater for this. With advertising and social media it is important to become more conscious of what we are seeing and the affect [ grammar?

If we are aware that advertising and social media are influencing our eating habits we can become more conscious in our decision making when it comes to food. From learnt behaviour we know that an introduction to a new habit unrelated to food can help to curb overeating. Goal conflict theory was devised by Stroebe Stroebe devised the theory upon two different groups. The first group was restricted eaters and the second unrestricted. The restricted eaters were more diligent with consumption and had the goal of either maintaining body weight or losing weight.

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The unrestricted took a more relaxed approach. The theory was formed on the basis that individuals must find balance between enjoying foods whilst not overeating. Going too far either way could lead to severe restriction or over consumption.

Studies into the 2 different groups found that the restricted eaters were more susceptible to over-consuming foods that tasted good. This is due to the nature of the theory that explains that when presented with palatable food, the restricted eater is in conflict. The major take away from this theory is finding balance. Eating foods in moderation and finding a happy medium rather than restricting oneself from palatable foods will result in less conflict.

Less conflict means less anxiety and less susceptibility to overeating. There have been a [ vague ] number of studies examining how to curb overeating. Dieting or Restraint theory is one treatment which has been examined as a way of curbing overeating. Restraint theory concentrates on cognitive control on food intake. It centers on the reducing food intake. Various methods to reduce food intake diets appear in the press every day. However studies have found that trying to reduce your food intake actually increase the likelihood of overeating Herman and Mack Ruderman and Wilson found that people who dieted were more likely to increase their weight rather than reduce it.

This is because when people restrict their food intake they tend to become extremely hungry and this results in them wanting to eat more to satisfy their hunger Polivy A study conducted between and by Dr Ancel Keys at the University of Minnesota involved bringing people to near starvation and then re-feeding. The study found that the participants developed physical, psychological and behavioral issues that continued even after the experiment finished.

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A number of other studies have concluded that restraint theory results in loss of control, making poor choices and overeating Vitousek ; Polivy and Herman ; Polivy Practical application Both these theories outline the importance of not restraining oneself to extremes when it comes to eating. Over restraint can often lead to a harder rebound and a poor relationship with food. With this knowledge in mind having a moderate diet that is not overly restrictive will lead to better results when it comes to overeating. Stress has long been regarded as a trigger to overeating.

The General Effect Model basically says that if individual suffers from stress they will overeat.

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The Individual Difference Model suggests that there are clear influences on an individual that will determine whether they overeat or not. One hypothesis that has been tested is that obese individuals are more likely to overeat as a result of stress than normal weight people. This theory is that food is used as a defense mechanism when dealing with the negativity of stress.

Therefore, stress can be a motivator to overeating. It is a coping mechanism. Treatments to curb this type of overeating include behavioural and cognitive treatment. It is interesting to note that short term stress usually reduces the appetite. This is because the hypothalamus produces corticotrophin-releasing hormone, which reduces appetite. But if stress is long term the adrenal gland release a different hormone called cortisol. If the cortisol level stays high this increases the individual motivation to eat. Individuals suffering from depression may also be motivated to overeat.

Depression may result from an emotional disturbance or it may be as a result of a brain injury.

Motivation and emotion/Book//Overeating motivation - Wikiversity

Depression could motivate overeating or undereating [ factual? When it motivates overeating in some instance it results in carbohydrate cravings. Studies have indicated that carbohydrate cravings are related to a need for serotonin [ factual? This is why antidepressants work to increase serotonin. The function of the lateral hypothalamus in the brain is significant for eating motivation.

Its nerve activity has the main connection with changes in eating patterns [ factual? Researchers have reported that injuries in this part of the brain can lead to major changes in appetite [ factual? This could motivate people to overeat without regard to what they are eating. When placed in a stressful situation becoming aware that feelings of hunger may not be due to lack of satiety. Rather being aware that a raise [ grammar? Depressed individuals should not look to food as an outlet for serotonin.

Whilst it may provide temporary comfort, feelings of guilt or shame may arise from overeating. These feelings will only enhance feelings of depression and decrease feelings of self esteem or self worth. It is important to consider the physiological and psychological variables that may trigger individuals to overeat. If individuals are aware of how their body is triggering [ missing something?

Making better choices with food in regards to choosing more nutrient dense foods will result in better physiological responses in regards to the body monitoring of satiety and hunger, as well as overall health [ factual? The key to controlling overeating is to take a moderate approach. Studies have shown that taking an extreme approach can be beneficial in the short term but can also develop a poor relationship with food [ factual? This poor relationship could include stress and anxiety when eating out socially or even over indulging when placed in an environment when there is stress and temptation.

Eating emotionally whilst providing instant gratification can yield further long term emotional problems. Diabetes ; 50' : — A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. Emotional eating and obesity: Theoretical considerations and practical recommendations. In: Dalton S, editor. Overweight and weight management: The health professional's guide to understanding and practice. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers; Harris, J.

Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Health Psychology, 28 4 , Effects of the presence of others on food intake: a normative interpretation. Psychol Bull ;— Herman, C. The self-regulation of eating: Theoretical and practical problems.

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